[324] The Al Fadl clan protected the trade routes and villages from Bedouin raids,[325] raiding other cities and fighting among themselves. [1][8], An alternative suggestion connects the name to the Syriac tedmurtā (ܬܕܡܘܪܬܐ) "miracle", hence tedmurtā "object of wonder", from the root dmr "to wonder"; this possibility was mentioned favourably by Franz Altheim and Ruth Altheim-Stiehl (1973), but rejected by Jean Starcky (1960) and Michael Gawlikowski (1974). The principle deity was Bel (Ba'al), the original inhabitant of the very famous Temple … [470] Most of Palmyra still remains unexplored especially the residential quarters in the north and south while the necropolis has been thoroughly excavated by the Directorate and the Polish expedition. [412] The Palmyrene pantheon included ginnaye (some were given the designation "Gad"),[413] a group of lesser deities popular in the countryside,[414] who were similar to the Arab jinn and the Roman genius. [171] Archaeological sounding in the tell beneath the Temple of Bel uncovered a mud-brick structure built around 2500 BC, followed by structures built during the Middle Bronze Age and Iron Age. [421] The Baalshamin sanctuary was in the Ma'zin quarter, the Arsu sanctuary in the Mattabol quarter,[421] and the Atargatis sanctuary in the fourth tribe's quarter. [285] Aurelian repaired the Temple of Bel, and the Legio I Illyricorum was stationed in the city. [53] Aurelian besieged Palmyra in the summer of 272,[54] and tried to negotiate with Zenobia, on the condition that she surrender herself in person to him, to which she answered with refusal. [53] Benjamin of Tudela recorded the existence of 2,000 Jews in the city during the twelfth century. All other accounts indicate that a military action was not necessary, as it seems that Zenobia had withdrawn her forces in order to defend Syria. Video \(\PageIndex{1}\): A conversation between Dr. Salaam al-Kuntar and Dr. Steven Zucker about the ancient city of Palmyra while looking at six funerary reliefs, c. 150-200 C.E., varying dimensions, limestone (The Metropolitan Museum of Art). [445] The city regained some of its prosperity during the Umayyad era, indicated by the discovery of a large Umayyad souq in the colonnaded street. [note 37][419], The priests of Palmyra were selected from the city's leading families,[422] and are recognized in busts through their headdresses which have the shape of a polos adorned with laurel wreath or other tree made of bronze among other elements. [57] At the beginning of the 11th century BC, King Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria recorded his defeat of the "Arameans" of "Tadmar";[57] according to the king, Palmyra was part of the land of Amurru. Named after its capital and largest city, Palmyra, it encompassed the Roman provinces of Syria Palaestina, Arabia Petraea, and Egypt, as well as large parts of Asia Minor. The Historia Augusta claims that her father could trace his lineage to the famous Julia Dom… Ancient Rome - Ancient Rome - Religious and cultural life in the 3rd century: On the right bank of the Tiber in Rome, in the least fashionable section of town among Lebanese and Jewish labourers, Elagabalus built an elegant temple to his ancestral god; he was no doubt in those precincts very well received when he presided personally at its inauguration. Palmyra, Temple of Bel, from north-west Palmyra is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria. [371], With the elevation of Palmyra to a colonia around 213–216, the city ceased being subject to Roman provincial governors and taxes. Events By place Roman Empire. [255] The king and his son were assassinated during their return in 267;[256] according to the Augustan History and Joannes Zonaras, Odaenathus was killed by a cousin (Zonaras says nephew) named in the History as Maeonius. It encompassed the Roman province s of Syria, Palestine, Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor. The Palmyrene Navy. [87] Classical Palmyra had a distinctive culture,[88] based on a local Semitic tradition,[89] and influenced by Greece and Rome. [41] However, toward the end of 271, Vaballathus took the title of Augustus (emperor) along with his mother. [158] On 5 October 2015, news media reported that ISIL was destroying buildings with no religious meaning, including the monumental arch. Aug 14, 2017 - Roman regions under Odaenathus (yellow) and the Palmyrene kingdom (green) Syrian Directorate-General of Antiquities, Destruction of cultural heritage by ISIL § Palmyra, Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology University of Warsaw, "Palmyra Temple Was Destroyed by ISIS, U.N. No evidence exists for Roman units serving in the ranks of Odaenathus; whether Roman soldiers fought under Odaenathus or not is a matter of speculation. [368][369] Roman provincial authority set and approved Palmyra's tariff structure,[370] but the provincial interference in local government was kept minimal as the empire sought to ensure the continuous success of Palmyrene trade most beneficial to Rome. [260], Odaenathus was succeeded by his son; the ten-year-old Vaballathus. [287], Palmyra was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate after its 634 capture by the Muslim general Khalid ibn al-Walid, who took the city on his way to Damascus; an 18-day march by his army through the Syrian Desert from Mesopotamia. [254] The queen was careful not to provoke Rome, claiming for herself and her son the titles held by her husband while guaranteeing the safety of the borders with Persia and pacifying the Tanukhids in Hauran. In addition to the fact that Palmyra and Petra traded in different articles, hence the annexation of Petra might have not had a real effect on Palmyra's trade. [61], In 273, Palmyra rebelled under the leadership of a citizen named Septimius Apsaios,[62] and contacted the Roman prefect of Mesopotamia, Marcellinus, offering to help him usurp the imperial power. [16] South of the wadi is a spring, Efqa. He added: "In any case, by using both traditional methods and advanced technologies, it might be possible to restore 98% of the site". 19 reads. The Palmyrenes could have some success because the new Roman emperor Claudius II was occupied at the … [13] The city is located in an oasis surrounded by palms (of which twenty varieties have been reported). [323], Muhanna was forgiven and restored by an-Nasir in 1330; he remained loyal to the sultan until his death in 1335, when he was succeeded by his son. The Empire fragments forever. [108] The reliefs emphasized clothing, jewelry and a frontal representation of the person depicted,[108][109] characteristics which can be seen as a forerunner of Byzantine art. Zenobia ruled as regent and attempted to claim the imperial title for herself. Fi­nally, Sha­pur I of Per­sia in­flicted a dis­as­trous de­feat upon the Ro­mans at the Bat­tle of Edessa in 260, cap­tur­ing the Roman em­peror Va­ler­ian and soon, Qui­etus and Macri­anus re­belled against Va­ler­ian's son Gal­lienusand usurpe… In general, a civic tribe (Phyle) is a collection of people chosen from the collective population and ascribed a deity as a tribal ancestor, then assigned a territory for them to reside in. The city grew wealthy from trade caravans; the Palmyrenes became renowned as merchants who established colonies along the Silk Road and operated throughout the Roman Empire. [301] Earthquakes devastated Palmyra in 1068 and 1089. [147] In 1980, the historic site including the necropolis outside the walls was declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO. [265] Under the pretext of attacking the Tanukhids, she conquered Roman Arabia. Rare Outstanding Significant piece of Palmyrene history | 3rd Century Roman Palmyra Stone (Limestone) Head | Size : 21cm x 16cm (8.3 x 6.3 in.) There are hints of Greek training; the names of three Greeks who worked on the construction of the Temple of Bel are known through inscriptions, including a probably Greek architect named Alexandras (Αλεξάνδρας). [97] Palmyra had no large libraries or publishing facilities, and it lacked an intellectual movement characteristic of other Eastern cities such as Edessa or Antioch. [318] Al-Ashraf Musa died in 1263 without an heir, bringing the Homs district under direct Mamluk rule. The city's social structure was tribal, and its inhabitants spoke Palmyrene (a dialect of Aramaic), while using Greek for commercial and diplomatic purposes. Zenobia (born c. 240 CE, death date unknown) was the queen of the Palmyrene Empire who challenged the authority of Rome during the latter part of the period of Roman history known as The Crisis of the Third Century (235-284 CE). [355], Syrian government forces supported by Russian airstrikes recaptured Palmyra on 27 March 2016 after intense fighting against ISIL fighters. The Pantheon (Rome) – Smarthistory This votive relief depicts the four traditional local Palmyrene gods. Mainly inhabited by Arameans and some nomadic Arabs from the surrounding desert, Palmyra was also bathed in Greco-Roman culture, even before its integration into the Roman Empire at the beginning of the 1 st century CE. 354 days ago. [162], In response to the destruction, on 21 October 2015, Creative Commons started the New Palmyra project, an online repository of three-dimensional models representing the city's monuments; the models were generated from images gathered, and released into the public domain, by the Syrian internet advocate Bassel Khartabil between 2005 and 2012. [23] However, excavation supports the theory that the tell was originally located on the southern bank, and the wadi was diverted south of the tell to incorporate the temple into Palmyra's late first and early second century urban organization on the north bank. [note 14][191], In 64 BC the Roman Republic conquered the Seleucid kingdom, and the Roman general Pompey established the province of Syria. In the 3rd century the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, as the Gallic Empire and Palmyrene Empire broke away from the Roman state, and a series of short-lived emperors, often from the legions, led the empire. [37] A cross street at the western end of the colonnade leads to the Camp of Diocletian,[25][38] built by Sosianus Hierocles (the Roman governor of Syria). The fourth tribe's name is not certain but most likely the Mita. Zenobia ruled this Palmyrene Empire primarily from the city of Antioch, where she styled herself as a Syrian monarch, a Hellenistic Queen, and a Roman Empress. A multicultural society. Military. The historian Karel van der Toorn suggested that these ancestors took refuge in Judea after the destruction of their kingdom by Sargon II of Assyria in 721 BC, then had to leave Judea after Sennacherib devastated the land in 701 BC and headed to Palmyra. The linguist Jean Cantineau assumed that Aurelian suppressed all aspects of Palmyrene culture, including the language, but the last Palmyrene inscription dates to 279/280, after the death of the Roman emperor in 275, thus refuting such a theory. The name Palmyra, meaning “city of palm trees,” was conferred upon the city by its Roman rulers in the 1st century ce; Tadmur, Tadmor, or Tudmur, the pre-Semitic name of the site, is also still in use. [38], The Palmyrene conquests were done under the protective show of subordination to Rome. 4. Greco-Roman culture influenced the culture of Palmyra, which produced distinctive art and architecture that combined eastern and western traditions. [416] Bel had Astarte-Belti as his consort, and formed a triple deity with Aglibol and Yarhibol (who became a sun god in his association with Bel). As Roman provincial subjects, the Palmyrenes accommodated the Roman imperial cult alongside the worship of their traditional divinities. Palmyrene (plural Palmyrenes) A native or inhabitant of ancient Palmyra or Palmyrena. [6] Finally, Shapur I of Persia inflicted a disastrous defeat upon the Romans at the Battle of Edessa in 260,[7] capturing the Roman emperor Valerian and soon, Quietus and Macrianus rebelled against Valerian's son Gallienus and usurped the imperial power in Syria. SheikhZabdibel, who aided the Seleucids in the battle of Raphia (217 BC), was mentioned as the commander of "the arabs and neighbouring tribes to the number of ten thousands"; Zabdibel and his me… Zenobia 240 – c. 275, was a 3rd-century Queen of the Palmyrene Empire in Roman Syria. [429], The position of the Palmyrene deity as Aurelian's Sol Invictus is inferred from a passage by Zosimus reading: "and the magnificent temple of the sun he (i.e. Best known for being the first Christ [269] The conquests were made behind a mask of subordination to Rome. [305], By the twelfth century, the population moved into the courtyard of the Temple of Bel which was fortified;[298] Palmyra was then ruled by Toghtekin, the Burid atabeg of Damascus, who appointed his nephew governor. [182], During the Hellenistic period under the Seleucids (between 312 and 64 BC), Palmyra became a prosperous settlement owing allegiance to the Seleucid king. [307] The Burids transformed the Temple of Bel into a citadel in 1132, fortifying the city,[308][309] and transferring it to the Bin Qaraja family three years later in exchange for Homs. [note 10] However, unlike the Greek Agoras (public gathering places shared with public buildings), Palmyra's agora resembled an Eastern caravanserai more than a hub of public life. [45] Apollonius implored him, stating: "Aurelian, if you desire to rule, abstain from the blood of the innocent! From left to right: The Sun God “Yarhibol” with the sun disk behind his head, Bel the chief of the Palmyrene pantheon, the Moon God “Aglibol” with the crescent moon behind his head, [415] Their role was similar to the Roman genius: tutelary deities who guarded individuals and their caravans, cattle and villages. [235], Odaenathus formed an army of Palmyrenes and Syrian peasants against Shapur. almost transported back to the Roman Empire itself. [86] After the conquest, the city became part of Homs Province. Christianity becomes the dominant religion in the Palmyrene Empire but remains there. [353][354] On 18 August, Palmyra's retired antiquities chief Khaled al-Asaad was beheaded by ISIL after being tortured for a month to extract information about the city and its treasures; al-Asaad refused to give any information to his captors. This period, also known as The Imperial Crisis, was characterized by constant civil war, as different Roman generals fought for control of the empire. Nevertheless, it was only around the 3rd century BC that the city started t… Named after its capital and largest city, Palmyra, it encompassed the Roman provinces of Syria Palaestina, Arabia Petraea, and Egypt, as well as large parts of Asia Minor. [36] The Roman general Tenagino Probus was able to regain Alexandria in November, but was defeated and escaped to the fortress of Babylon, where he was besieged and killed by Zabdas, who continued his march south and secured Egypt. [349] On 21 May, some artifacts were transported from the Palmyra museum to Damascus for safekeeping; a number of Greco-Roman busts, jewelry, and other objects looted from the museum have been found on the international market. [74] Modern Syrian nationalists viewed the empire as a uniquely Syrian civilization which attempted to liberate the masses of the Levant from Roman tyranny. 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