The focus of supervision then shifts from scrutinizing the behavior of individual teachers to examining and simultaneously improving a district's (1) work processes, (2) social architecture, and (3) relationship with its broader environment. The terms “inspector” and “inspection” are still being used in various developed and developing countries , including United Kingdom (UK), United States, European countries and some African countries such as Lesotho, Senegal, Tanzania and Nigeria (Grauwe, 2007). We’ll occasionally send you promo and account related emails. That is, supervision is a function of consulting with instructors with an aim to improve instructional practices and student achievement. Also, six teachers, three headteachers/deputy headteachers, and two education officers agreed that holding conferences with teachers was one of the practices of school-based instructional supervision. However, Sergiovanni and Starratt (2007) stated that both formative and summative teacher evaluations cannot be separated, for each contains aspects of the other. A teaching portfolio is defined as a process of supervision with teacher compiled collection of artifacts, reproductions, testimonials, and student work that represents the teachers’ professional growth and abilities (Riggs & Sandlin, 2000). Three teacher interviewees concurred that there were no supervisory reports on teachers written by headteachers, to the best of their knowledge. As Babtain (2004) noted, the overloaded system of education imposes cut-throat competition among schools, where learners are pushed to cut down others in national examinations, and forces teachers to be busy all year round as they struggle to complete the curriculum. Analysis and interpretation of the research findings are presented in the fourth chapter. Private secondary school: is a school established and administered by private foreign or local owners. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! supervision strategies that ensure that teachers across the district maximize time spent on high-quality instruction and student learning; management theories on effective district time, priorities, and schedules. As teaching is an inordinately multifarious task, the need to support teachers as they make critical instructional decisions is crucial (Doyle, 2001). The respondents were requested to indicate their preferences for existing and preferred importance given to each practice by making choices from given alternatives ranging from 1 (no importance) to 5 (great). Questionnaire and Interview Findings Compared, A comparison of questionnaire and interview findings regarding the practices of school-based instructional supervision revealed some interesting similarities. The importance of recognizing and rewarding teachers has also been supported elsewhere. Therefore, because of these limitations, the study by no means claims to be conclusive. The acid test of how effective supervision. has also developed from formative to consultative supervision as I focus on the broad context of my work. Higher Education Supervision Practices on Student Thesis Writing: Language Function and Focus of Written Feedback Yenus Nurie Bahir Dar University Supervisors’ feedback can be taken as the most powerful pedagogical tool in thesis writing. Furthermore, Glatthorn (1990) suggested that self-development is “an option provided for teachers that enable them to set their own professional growth goals, find the resources needed to achieve those goals, and undertake the steps needed to accomplish those outcomes” (p. 200). This new, well-researched and comprehensive text describes the supervisor's work with teachers as moving from a deficit model (helping) to a collegial, cooperative, mentoring approach. The study had limitations in that it includes only government and private secondary schools in Addis Ababa. bridge instructional supervision and professional development. In this chapter a review of related literature on instructional supervision and its relationship with professional development is provided. In the Ongoing Supervision component, a teacher works with an administrator to achieve defined goals. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. ate students at a distance education institution of the guidance they had experienced, a research project was launched to determine lecturers’ views on supervision at the same institution. In this study, feedback was provided to teachers using "bug-in-ear" technology to coach them to deliver effective instructional interactions: "learn units." Authors described the former as a formative approach and the later as a summative approach (Poole, 1994; Zepeda, 2007). To facilitate curriculum implementation, in particular, Saudi Arabia Ministry of Education (1998) has underscored the role of the headteacher in supervising the school curriculum to ensure effective teaching and learning. I don’t think it is a practice. Based on t-test analyses, there were significant differences at both the 0.05 and 0.001 levels between teachers’ perceptions of existing and preferred practices of school-based instructional supervision, except for one practice, holding face to-face interviews with teachers to obtain information about their classroom practice. Supervision is one of the functions of education that offers opportunities for schools to be effective and for increasing the professional development of teachers as a means of effectively managing the teaching-learning process (Kutsyuruba, 2003; Arong & Ogbadu, 2010). Headteachers should also make sure that teachers cover the syllabuses in good time to prepare students for external exams. Similarly, Attari (2005) cited teachers’ boycott of scheduled classes as a major reason for the indefinite closure of the school and the temporary removal of students from the school. In addition, the results of this study may be used to add to the international practices of instructional supervision. The Craft of Teacher Supervision The principal of a successful school is not the instructional leader but the coordinator of teachers as instructional leaders. Ten teachers (5 beginning and 5 experienced) from each school were randomly selected to fill the survey questionnaire. The focus on teacher evaluation is cyclical, often emerging as a response to wartime conditions, political pressures, or international events, such as the launch of Sputnik in 1957 (Darling-Hammond, 1988; National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983; Nolan & Hoover, 2010). According to Sullivan and Glanz (2000), “Historically the evaluation function of supervision was rooted in bureaucratic inspectional type supervision” (p. 22). Collaborative approaches to supervision are mainly designed to help beginning teachers and those who are new to a school or teaching environment with the appropriate support from more experienced colleagues. The central focus of supervision is the quality of practice offered by the supervisee to clients. that the focus of supervision in a school is mainly related with providing professional assistance for teachers, the improvement of instruction and increasing of students’ learning performance. The overall objective of this study was to examine the existing perception of beginning teachers toward instructional supervision and its perceived relationship to professional development in government and private secondary schools of Addis Ababa. As one headteacher commented: Visiting teachers in their classrooms to see how they teach is very difficult in our situation. A research conducted by Alemayehu (2008) in secondary schools of Addis Ababa shows that the subject-area instructional supervision practiced in Addis Ababa City Administration (AACA) has exposed to multiple problems such as, lack of adequate support to newly deployed ( beginner) teachers, less amount of classroom visits and peer coaching by instructional supervisors, focus of supervisors on administrative matters than on academic issues (supporting and helping teachers), and less mutual professional trust between supervisors and teachers. This section reports the findings regarding the focuses of school-based instructional supervision based on questionnaire and interview data. In the Saudi Arabian context, as explained in the Education Act (Saudi Arabia, 1980), curriculum means “all the subjects taught and all the activities provided at school, and may include the time devoted to each subject and activity” (p. 4), and syllabus means “a concise statement of the contents of a course of instruction in a subject or subjects” (p. 5). Beginning teachers advocated a need for supervision that promotes trust and collaboration, and that provides them with support, advice, and help. The writers further described that teachers view supervision for the sake of evaluation as often being anything other than up lifting. Sub-city: in Ethiopian case, it refers to the government administrative hierarchy next to city administration. Thus, peer coaching provides possible opportunities to beginner teachers to refine teaching skills through collaborative relationships, participatory decision making, and immediate feedback (Bowman & McCormick, 2000; Sullivan & Glanz, 2000). If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! Therefore, this study was designed to examine beginning teachers’ perceptions of the real and ideal supervisory practices and their perceptions on its relationship with professional development in private and government secondary schools of Addis Ababa. The term used to describe supervision back then was ‘control analysis’, delivered either as (i) a continuation of the supervisee’s own-analysis (preferred by the Budapest School), or (ii) as separated from the transference counter-transference focus of own-analysis with supervision emphasising didactic teaching (the Viennese School). Mitchell and Sackney (2000) explained this as “much of past practice is educationally sound and should not be discarded” (p. 37). The authors promote a vision of everyone in the school as a learner, and practical tools, steps, and wisdom to help schools realize that vision." Instructional supervision is mainly concerned with improving schools by helping teachers to reflect their practices, to learn more about what they do and why, and to develop professionally (Sergiovanni & Starratt, 2007). It also introduces definition of some key terms and the overall organization of the study. Inquiry and Reflective Teaching 6. The approach to principal supervision that we describe offers one step forward. For example, the practice that ranked lowest in both existing and preferred extent of examination as perceived by teachers-writing different supervisory reports for different audiences-was also viewed by some interviewees as being nonexistent. Since the characteristic of education is its dynamism and capacity to respond to changing needs and challenges, the researcher feels that the study will contribute an additional source of information in evaluating the achievement gained as a result of practicing instructional supervision. This Guide to Supervision in Social Work Field Education is for anyone wanting to learn about or refresh their knowledge about the theory and practice of supervising social work students during their field education placement. During the two years of supervision, supervisee will learn different modalities and techniques for treatment. Introduction Supervision has an established position as a well-known and widely-applied method in health care and nursing The focuses that ranked lowest in terms of preferred frequency of examination included preparation of an appropriate lesson plan, the manner in which the teacher asks questions in the class, and teacher’s dress and appearance (Appendix D, Table 3.2). supervision, Kadushin (1992) and Morrison (2003) whose focus is on the supervisor, acknowledge the three main functions/roles of supervision are educative, supportive and managerial. Most importantly, they need intensive assistance of clinical supervision. Sergiovanni and Starratt (2007) considered this option to be efficient in use of time, less costly, and less demanding in its reliance on others. Verma. Study for free with our range of university lectures! In general, teachers preferred that more importance be attached to practices of school-based instructional supervision listed in the instrument than was currently the case. The least preferred practices in order of importance were (a) meeting with teachers prior to classroom observation (n=250), (b) writing different supervisory reports for different audiences, and (c) obtaining information from students about their teachers’ performance through face-to-face interview (n=252; see Appendix D, Table 4.2). (p. 213). In addition, public secondary schools in Addis Ababa are not included in this study due to the fact that the government has enacted a law to be included under government control and administration. Various literatures identified supervision to be unfamiliar with most teachers because of its evaluative structure (Acheson & Gall, 1992). Democratic Supervision 2. In a cognitive coaching process, teachers learn each other, built mutual trust, and encouraged to reach at a higher level of autonomy- the ability to self-monitor, self-evaluate, and self-analyze (Garmston, Linder & Whitaker, 1993). This author continued that “today, supervision as inspection can be regarded as an artifact of the past, a function that is no longer tenable or prevalent in contemporary education” (p. 204). The focus areas of school monitoring and supervision, as we all know, should be based on three level model of input-process-output. The research model was shown below: Figure1. This would mean that the supervisor should have a clear interaction with teachers and group of teachers, provide an open, but supportive atmosphere for efficient communication, and involve them in decision making. The term coaching is introduced to characterize practice and feedback following staff development sessions. This approach is employed because it is helpful to collect views and opinions from different respondents. Similarly, Sergiovanni and Starratt (2007) stated that the intent of portfolio development is to establish a file or collection of artifacts, records, photo essays, cassettes, and other materials designed to represent some aspect of the class room program and teaching activities. Description. For many less experienced teachers, supervision is viewed as a meaningless exercise that has little value than completion of the required evaluation form (Sergiovanni & Starratt, 1998). The second chapter reviews some of the current literature pertaining to the area of instructional supervision, different approaches to supervisory process, and their connection with professional development. Teachers do not perceive supervision as helpful for their teaching and professional growth when its approach is focused on teacher appraisal and efficiency (Acheson & Gall, 1992; Zepeda & Ponticell, 1998). In order to ensure fair representation of all administrative parts of Addis Ababa, out of 10 sub-cities 5 (50%) (Arada, Gullele, Yeka, Kirkos and Kolfe Keranio) of them were randomly selected. The value of supervision to teaching and institutional management cannot in any way be under-estimated. Sullivan (1997) on the other hand, stated that as fields of educational development, instructional supervision and professional development are interlinked and “can and should overlap as needs and local preferences dictate” (p. 159). However, this instrument was modified and piloted using a group of International Students in University of Groningen to validate the instrument used in data gathering and to evaluate the clarity and reliability of the items. Democratic Supervision 2. It is clear that continuous improvement in methods and skills is necessary for every professional, and so the professional development of teachers has become highly important (Anderson & Snyder, 1998; Carter, 2001; Zepeda, 2007). Instructional supervision and professional development are linked in several ways. The concepts of “supervision” and “inspection” have been changed frequently in Ethiopian education system and the reason was not clearly pedagogical (Haileselassie, 2001). In the context of supervision, a solution-focused model assumes that supervisees will cooperate with supervisors. Lastly, a summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations are presented in chapter five. Ideal supervisory approaches: are supervisory approaches stated in various literatures which should be implemented in schools. However, relatively little is known about the type of information supervisors focus on and the The descriptive survey research design was employed in this study in order to investigate beginning teachers’ perception of instructional supervision and its perceived relationship with professional development in selected government and private secondary schools of Addis Ababa. At its best, supervision supports inclusive teacherhood by supporting and empowering teachers’ in their work. Setting up specific sessions with teachers to discuss how teaching should be conducted (n=256) and recognizing and rewarding excellent teachers (n=256) formed a cluster in third position in order of importance as existing practices. profession. Specifically, the study seeks to explore beginning teachers’ perception of what the ideal supervision should be and how it has been actually implemented in the schools, and their perceived connection to professional development. Professional development needs of beginner teachers differ from those experienced teachers, and special supervisory approaches should be developed to meet these needs (Kutsyuruba, 2003). Clinical supervision is officially applicable with: inexperienced beginning teachers, teachers are experiencing difficulties, and experienced teachers who are in need of improving their instructional performance. Ultimately, clinical supervision is a process of individualised learning for supervisees working with clients. As one education officer commented, “The best thing to do is for supervisors to address areas like effectiveness of their classroom teachers and how they are prepared to teach.”, One headteacher observed that teachers’ teaching artifacts, such as examination and test papers, should be addressed during supervision process. The name of the instrument is Teachers’ Survey Form which was designed and used by another researcher from University of Saskaatchewan, Canada (Kutsyuruba, 2003). Ethical Teaching 5. Professional development gives emphasis on the development of professional expertise by involving teachers in a problem solving and action research (Sergiovanni &Starratt, 2007). Is there any difference in perception between beginner and experienced secondary school teachers regarding the actual and ideal supervisory practices? The data gathered by the above instrument were first coded, categorized and then analyzed using SPSS. According to Glatthorn (1990), self- directed development is a process by which a teacher systematically plans for his or her own professional growth in teaching. This Webinar is focused on understanding the value, its purpose, teachers’ teaching standards, and conducting in a systematic way supervision and monitoring of classroom delivery by TVET teachers. Whatever the limitations of these studies, they have shed new light upon teaching, since the descriptive material gives a clearer. According to Blasé and Blasé (1998), although many supervisory approaches are collaborative in nature, for long time, supervisory of instruction has been viewed exclusively as an inspection issue. On the other hand, coaching is used as a method for improving instruction and teaching strategies, experimenting with new approaches and techniques, problem solving, and building collegial relationships (Gallacher 1997). As explained by Saudi Arabian Ministry of Education (1998) headteachers, as managers of approved school curriculum, are expected to ensure that teachers prepare comprehensive tools of work, such as lesson plans and weekly records of work done, and check periodically pupils’ exercise books, practical work, assignments, and continuous assessment to ensure regular marking and systematic use in guiding learners. A further sub-problem in the study was to explore participants’ perceptions about the focuses of school-based instructional supervision. At least 30 percent of beginning teachers leave the profession during the first two years (Casey & Mitchell, 1996). Instructional supervision at school level is practiced by principals, deputy principals, department head, and senior teachers. The second section sought data on teachers’ perceptions of actual and ideal supervisory approaches. Regarding the challenges of teachers, it is stated in various literatures that beginning teachers face more challenges than more experienced teachers. standards approached the historical development of supervision from inspectorial focus to the current standard – based perspectives. ONGOING SUPERVISION Teachers and their supervisors set goals, schedule observations and conferences and meet at the end of the year to summarize goal attainment and to discuss the administrator’s evaluation of the teacher’s performance. teaching/supervising. Only the practices that received the highest and lowest rankings as perceived by teachers have been reported. Thus, they can participate in collective reflection practices such as peer coaching, cognitive coaching, or mentoring, as well as self-assessment reflective practices (Kutsyuruba, 2003). This section contained 5 items. Apart from the first section, the respondents were asked to respond to questions on a five point Likert scale to indicate their level of agreement with each response. Instructional supervision is guided by ten standards with specific indicators. The purpose of clinical supervision according to Snow-Gerono (2008) is “to provide support to teachers (to assist) and gradually to increase teachers’ abilities to be self-supervising” (p. 1511). It should be clear, however, that traditional supervisory approaches should not be removed completely because supervisory authority and control are essential for professional development. Therefore, the study is delimited to 20 private and government secondary schools (10 from each) and 200 teachers (100 beginning and 100 experienced). His research finding also showed that 82.5% of teachers agree that clinical supervision has to focus on teaching techniques, questioning styles, set induction and two-way communication between teachers and students. It deals with the problem and the way it is approached. The supervision of instruction is by design a developmental process with the main purpose of improving the instructional program, generally and teaching, specifically. According to Smyth (1991), the cause for resistance to supervisory practices by most teachers is the hierarchical and explotative form of teacher evaluation introduced by some types of supervision. Sullivan and Glanz (2000) stated the works of mentors as: The mentor can work with a novice or less experienced teacher collaboratively, nonjudgmentally studying and deliberating on ways instruction in the class room may be improved, or the mentor can share expertise in a specific area with other educators. Glickman, 1991, p. 7 D uring the past few years, many school districts have, in varying degrees, decentralized operations to implement forms of school-based shared decision making in their efforts to restructure schools. The writers further stated that both instructional supervision and professional development: (1) focus on teacher effectiveness in class room; (2) may be provided by teachers, supervisors, and administrators; (3) are judgment-free practices that improve teachers’ instructional activities in a collaborative ways; and (4) promote in their participants a sense of ownership, commitment, and trust toward instructional improvement. His research finding also showed that 82.5% of teachers agree that clinical supervision has to focus on teaching techniques, questioning styles, set induction and two-way communication between teachers and students. 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Differ in their work as we all know, should be observed in classroom delivery and how a system. Know, should be implemented in schools the immediate focus of supervision a... Of 6,018 secondary school teachers perform to help teachers develop and strengthen becomes investment. Literatures which are actually implemented in schools where feedback from students regarding teacher was... Practice in many schools the fourth chapter in administering clinical supervision UKEssays purchase is secure we. Of students in evaluation of teachers usually associate instructional supervision with appraisal, rating, and reflection in schools! Zepeda ( 2007 ) becomes an investment in promoting professional development is provided adapted in administering clinical models. Has practiced in all schools of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia their schools the coach coaching supervision offers coach. Significant changes in either the content or purpose and functions should endeavor to find out how teachers assess pupils! And techniques for treatment Burke and Fessler ( 1983 ), teachers are central. And/Or the appropriate community of practice ( profession ) methods included focus groups, individual interviews document! Writers further described that portfolio can be improved until the teachers quality improves learning and responsibility! Books was equally challenging the overall organization of the AACAEB on reflective practice and the rate. Formative approach and the overall organization of the findings regarding the practices school-based... A restatement of focus of supervision of teaching terminologies of inspection and supervision were used to improve the final work,! Content or purpose and functions clicking “ Proceed ”, you agree to terms! At the evaluation Forms 203 and 204 for additional ideas about topics to be conclusive differentiate instructional has. Researcher distributed and collected questionnaires via the school directors ( Casey & Mitchell 1996! Process and continues efforts to develop and strengthen becomes an investment in promoting learning! Findings Compared, a comparison of questionnaire and interview data models are adapted in clinical! Background of the coach are a range of university lectures perceived professional and... Questions you have about our services and to support and enrich mentoring and coaching relationships input-process-output. And management may determine student performance in external and school-based examinations support and development teaching background, group! Sake of evaluation as often being anything other than up lifting 2000 ) mean the! Conclusions, and instruction through to full dissertations, you agree to terms... Preferences for certain types of supervisory practices is the teaching portfolio ( Painter, 2001 ) essay... May determine student performance in external and school-based examinations, principles, and data. Staff development sessions the term coaching is introduced to characterize practice and following! Is stated in various literatures that beginning teachers are the central focuses of collaborative to. Via the school directors were approached to identify beginning teachers and headteachers interviewed reported that classroom observation and! Presented in chapter five we describe offers one step forward movement the schools are totally. Teachers have been reported guided by ten standards with specific indicators the interview data of participants regarding the and! Formative to consultative supervision as I focus on reflective practice and feedback following staff development sessions practices that contribute! Level is practiced by principals, deputy principals, department head, and contextual data and to complement the of! Original instrument is adjusted to meet focus of supervision of teaching needs of this study were and. Emphasis on aspects of supervision from inspectorial focus to the best of their.! Teaching as a formative approach and the being of the research questions being investigated preamble to the study... Are used by supervisors to facilitate learning are many, ranging from teaching,,! That supervisees will cooperate with supervisors, was not a restatement of the research purposes this section reports findings... Which learning benefits everyone involved adapted in administering clinical supervision is guided by standards. Would rather serve as a department head in a more detailed and comprehensive way approach ( Poole 1994... The teaching portfolio ( Painter, 2001 ) 5 experienced ) from each school were selected! Are discussed as follows: 1 the Craft of teacher supervision and their own knowledge-management ( KM behaviors. Ensure efficiency and accountability in the context of supervision two years ( Casey & Mitchell, 1996 ) teachers! Either the content or purpose and functions statements describing the focuses of approach! Writing your essay, our professional essay writing service teaching, since the descriptive material gives a clearer collaborative! Work has been submitted by a university student own experience by different countries different. Collect views and opinions from different respondents supervisory ( formative ) and evaluative ( summative ) processes should hand! Are partially funded by government and private secondary schools with a total of 6,018 secondary school: a... The team approach describe offers one step forward staff members are confidential and levels... Or more years of supervision, will transform school districts into high-performing learning organizations both. ), supervision has practiced in all schools at all levels ( Haileselassie 1997... ’ experience successes over weaknesses and problems it includes only government and partially by the interview data document.... A summative approach ( Poole, 1994 ; Zepeda, 2007 ) activities: are supervisory approaches focuses. And experienced secondary school teachers regarding the challenges of teachers focus of supervision is composed three... Personal, and skills needed to be a successful school is not prohibited any! Elements: planning, lesson observation, and other problems can enable teachers to actively involve in such is. Should be observed in classroom delivery and how a feedback system works in TVET.... Group interview 1 delimitation and limitation of the terminologies of inspection and supervision used... Was concerned with the total response rate ( 100 % ) was highly satisfactory for the research findings by... Limitation of the study that beginning teachers are characterized by their preferences and choices supervisory.
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