While communication is two-way and leader support is increased, control over decision-making remains with the leader. (d) For leaders to be successful, their traits should match those of their followers so that decision-making process is effectively planned and implemented. There is no best style that leaders can adopt in all situations. Major decisions are made at the top and some routine decisions are taken at the lower levels. The leader discusses the problems with the group members until joint agreement is achieved on the problem-definition. Effective leaders motivate the employees to contribute to organisational output to their maximum potential. This enhances their innovative and creative abilities to work towards group goals. Transformational leadership is one of the styles of leadership that is used to motivate the employees and boost them up for better working. The managerial grid has been successful in influencing leader behaviour in specific situations, though no specific reasons can be identified with ‘why do leaders adopt one of the five styles of leadership. They make followers realize their capabilities and guide, counsel and coach them whenever necessary. Four leadership styles arising out of two leader behaviours are shown as follows: This approach to leadership style was developed in 1960s by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. Rather, these two behaviours depicted four leadership styles: (a) High consideration – High initiating structure, (b) Low consideration – Low initiating structure, (c) High consideration – Low initiating structure. Leaders’ attitude is employee-oriented. The data collected on their behaviour revealed that the boys were attracted more by the democratic style than the other two styles of leadership. The relationship between followers and the leader may be another factor that affects leader behavior as much as it does follower behavior. They are highly motivated to achieve their targets and are directed by self-control. ‘Women in leadership’ is a phenomena that has obtained many attention over the past couple of years. They organized to meet specific goals and objectives. For example, the followers of an authoritarian leader are more prone to having low motivation and morale. In the long-run, it may lead to dissatisfaction and frustration amongst workers. The leader's perception of themselves and other factors such as stress and mood will also modify the leaders' behavior. This represents low concern for production and high concern for people. This is characterised by high-relationship and low-task behaviour. Encourages employees to grow on the job and be promoted. A person becomes a leader because of his personal qualities. In this "Leadership and Management Essay" Leader cannot do everything. Leaders realign their organisations with employees, customers, shareholders, suppliers, regulators and the communities in which they operate. Based on these situational variables, leaders adopt one of the following four leadership styles: The leader tells the subordinates what he expects from them. Retrieved from https://phdessay.com/leadership-style/. These theories focus on what the leaders do rather than who the leaders are. In such cases, leaders do not frequently invite suggestions. Attention was thus put on discovering these traits, often by studying successful leaders, but with the underlying assumption that if other people could also be found with these traits, then they, too, could also become great leaders. They exploit their potential to work and convert their desire into performance. In such a situation, leader has power and group members are ready to be directed by the leader. This theory focuses on the following factors: Task requirement. The Meaning of Leadership. Formal leaders who exercise authority without personal leadership qualities are not effective as leaders. Initiating structure is similar to production-oriented leader behaviour and consideration is similar to employee-centred leader behaviour. The Michigan Studies identified two work groups consisting of people from business and non-business organisations. Many employees like the trust they receive and respond with cooperation, team spirit, and high morale. Let Professional Writer Help You, 48 Vitosha Boulevard, ground floor, 1000, Sofia, Bulgaria Bulgarian reg. The way an individual perceives himself as a leader, the source of power, his attitude towards subordinates, attitude towards work; extent to which he wants to retain authority and how much he is willing to delegate to subordinates, his value systems and similar drives influence the leadership style. Even in unfavourable situation for leaders, where leader-member relations are not good, task is unstructured and position power of the leader is weak, autocratic or task- oriented approach to leadership is preferred. They studied leader behaviour towards these work groups. Successful leaders can get results as employees carry out the orders to keep their jobs intact. Besides, the behaviour of adolescent boys cannot be compared with the behaviour of employees who are formally related with their superiors in the organisation structures. Ability is knowledge, skill and competence to do the task and willingness is the motivation and desire to do the task. Organizational culture and policies. Laissez-faire leadership. Accordingly, it helps them move to a desirable style which subordinates appreciate to feel committed to the organisation. When followers bestow confidence in leaders, leaders’ expert and referent power increases which further increases interaction between them and the followers. Physical characteristics include personal appearance, age, height, complexion etc. According to Bass … Leadership can be aimed at either maintaining the interpersonal relationships in the group or prodding the group to achieve its task. A leader who uses this leadership style solely decides the policies that are to be applied and directs on the goals of the organization. As regards first aspect of trait theory, i.e. This is called the telling or directive style of leadership. Leaders should set example before followers and be their ideal. High level of maturity (M4) is shown by employees. It helps managers in identifying the combination of people and task reflected in their leadership style. The extreme right democratic style assumes that leaders derive power from expert or referent sources and workers belong to Theory Y set of assumptions. (d) Workers’ potential remains unexploited. Definitions Of Core Leadership. The focus of control for day-to-day decision-making and problem-solving shifts from leader to the group members. The leaders therefore, keep constant track and change their leadership style. They combine ability with willingness and drive people to action. Thus, development level is a task-specific concept not person-specific. This style of leadership suffers from the following limitations: (a) Consulting subordinates every time a decision is made is time consuming. Personality characteristics include intelligence, dominance, confidence etc. (b) Suggestions given by subordinates may sometimes be better than what leaders can think of. There should be an atmosphere of trust and understanding between leaders and stakeholders of the company for smooth running of the business. ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY ON LEADERSHIP A leader is one who keeps the vision in front of the people. Don't use plagiarized sources. 7. The manager’s personal background. If people agree to be led and influenced by someone, that person can be called a leader. These relationships cannot be prescribed by the organisation but have to be developed amongst the group members and the leader. It involves telling subordinates about expectations of the job and ways to fulfill those expectations, i.e., what is expected of a job and how it is to be achieved. 2. The leadership style is affected by factors like personality of leaders and followers, ability and willingness of leaders and followers to work with each other, environmental factors and other situational factors. They are responsible for accomplishment of the task and normally follow negative leadership style to motivate workers. The path goal theory is based on expectancy model of motivation according to which employees are motivated to work because they perceive their efforts will lead to desired performance and performance, in turn, will lead to certain outcomes/rewards which will help them fulfill their needs. According to them, there is no best leadership style. The theory suggests that leader can influence employees’ behaviour by understanding their needs, nature of task, liking for superiors, co-workers and work, organisation structure and helps them reach the goals by adopting the appropriate leadership style. Importance 4. For example, people are generally elected as politicians on the basis of personal traits like intelligence, self- confidence and self-assurance. Even on the basis of these traits, one cannot always say that those who possess these traits are always successful leaders. Situations that call for urgent action. Use participative style with a team of workers who know their job. Varying Leadership Style While the proper leadership style depends on the situation, there are three other factors that also influence which leadership style to use. It is a detailed outline of the effect of the conduct of leadership in improving productivity […] Leaders are more task-oriented and less relationship-oriented in their behaviour. The efficiency of work activities is generally low. It is a relatively consistent pattern of behaviour, skills and practices that characterise one’s interaction with others in a situation requiring influencing. People have to be guided to contribute to goals with zeal and confidence. When things go wrong, then the subordinate is considered to be personally at fault, and is punished for their failure (just as they are rewarded for succeeding). c. Leadership Styles related to maturity level of employees: Relationship between leader behaviour and maturity level of employees gives rise to styles of leadership. If employees feel they are dealing with structured situations where everything is clear as to who is to do what and when, believe they are skilled and have faith in their potential to perform organisational tasks, they prefer their leader to adopt employee-oriented style of leadership. They give orders and rewards and punish members according to their contribution to the group’s efforts. Leaders aim to achieve the goals by focusing on employee behaviour. Leaders are concerned more with task or production and less with people. Employees also put all their efforts to achieve those goals. Autocratic leaders employ the leadership style. It is the power by virtue of position in the organisational hierarchy. 5. (e) To identify important leadership traits, researchers conducted hundreds of studies and developed a long list of traits along with a long list of exceptions. Characteristics of instrumental leadership Instrumental leaders usually have formal, secondary relations with other group members. Also, the situation might call for leader to be at other places, doing other things. The leader has total control over the group, and the subjects have a little freedom. Leadership is what leaders do. Two types of leader behaviour were identified as: The employee-centred managers accomplished group goals through participation. It is one in which the manager provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedom as possible. However despite this, there are situations where an authoritarian leadership style is the most effective. 4. Using these eight combinations and two styles of leader behaviour (employee-oriented or task-oriented), Fiedler concluded the following: (a) Task-oriented leadership style is more appropriate in extreme situations, that is, situations where leader-member relations are good, task is structured and position power of the leader is strong. The laissez-faire manager exercises little control over his group, leaving them to sort out their roles and tackle their work, without participating in this process himself. This develops cordial and friendly atmosphere in the organisation. Superiors show some confidence in their subordinates. The best style depended on the situation faced by the leaders. 89 % (155) Argumentative essay transformational leadership; Argumentative essay topics on parenting words to use in toefl essays.Ending of an argumentative essay. Informal groups is a healthy sign as these groups, by and large, Support the organisational goals and do not work against the formal goals. They are now ready, able and willing to assume responsibilities with respect to their jobs. Employees would be ready to take up a task if they are both able and willing to do it. However, the ideal style of leadership is 9, 9 and training programmes should be conducted for managers to adopt this style. They persuade employees’ behaviour towards their personal goals of job satisfaction and higher-order needs of competence and achievement. Argumentative essay topics on leadership rating. This system of management also results in formation of informal groups but group goals are not always contradictory to formal goals of the organisation. Based on the qualities of leaders, trait theories identify and compare the: 1. Leadership is the process by which an executive imaginatively directs, guides and influences the work of others in choosing and attaining specified goals, by mediating between individuals and the organisation in a manner that both obtain maximum satisfaction. Social factors include ability of the leader to be tactful, persuasive, knowledgeable about his social environment and having good interpersonal skills. When subordinates are unskilled, inexperienced and submissive. Theories 6. While legitimate, coercive and reward power are relatively concrete sources of power based on objective aspects of organisational culture, referent power is abstract based on identification, loyalty and intimation. Skills and abilities, social factors, emotional stability, interpersonal skills to deal with people, technical skills to manage the operations, motivating skills to drive people to action are the acquired skills. People follow a leader who has contacts with people of high social and economic status to elicit favours out of such persons. You can get your Internals relate rewards to their efforts and performance and externals believe that rewards occur by chance or factors beyond their control. This style of leadership can be successful in the short-run. Factors that affect situational decisions include motivation and capability of followers. Though successful leaders can be identified with certain traits, traits cannot always be identified with the success of a leader. Whether or not followers are willing to take additional responsibility, whether or not they find the work interesting, to what extent they willingly subordinate individual goals in the interest of organisational goals and how much they participate in the decision-making processes, are some of the factors that leaders consider before adopting a leadership style. A number of theories support situational approach to leadership. The leaders do very little to increase the morale and job satisfaction of the followers. Leader behaviour is defined in terms of: structure, control and supervision. Using this style is of mutual benefit -- it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions. Leader behaviour is participative in nature. a) Employees are considered part of the system. 3. Who has the information – leader, employees or both? “A leader is one who conducts, acts as a guide to others in action or opinion, one who takes the lead in any enterprise or movement, one who is ‘followed’ by disciples or adherents, the most eminent member of a profession, a person of eminent position and influence.”. The leader solely initiates the problem-solving and decision-making. They emerge as forces of attraction amongst members of informal groups. Managerial grid is a two dimensional matrix with points ranging from 1 to 9 on either axis. Example: the democratic style of leadership is an example of expressive leadership. Leadership occurs in all formal and informal situations. This can be discussed under the following categories: Based on sources of power, leadership style may be one of the following: 2. Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Business Management, Difference between Transactional and Transformational Leadership, Essay on Leadership: Top 7 Essays on Leadership, Essay on Leadership: Top 7 Essays | Hindi | Directing | Management, Leadership: Term Paper on Leadership | Process | Directing | Management, Long and Short Essay on Leadership in English, Essay on Leadership # Meaning of Leadership (Essay 1), Essay on Leadership # Nature of Leadership (Essay 2), Essay on Leadership # Importance of Leadership (Essay 3), Essay on Leadership # Styles of Leadership (Essay 4), Essay on Leadership # Theories of Leadership (Essay 5), Essay on Leadership # Effective Leadership: (Essay 6), Essay on Leadership # Principles of Leadership (Essay 7). You cannot do everything! Leaders must be able to analyse the situation and make decisions according to the situation. In intermediate situations of leader-member relations, task structure and leader’s position power, the leader relies more on persuasion and personal skills to get the work done than issuing instructions as the group members may not wholly accept the leader and the leader may not even have the adequate authority to get the work done. Members look to instrumental leadership to make plans, give orders and get things done. Employees’ behaviour is compatible with that of the leader because of leader’s position and authority to closely supervise the activities of subordinates. 4. A leadership style which works well in a particular situation may not work well in another situation. It is based on researches conducted by psychologists and others who identified personal characteristics of individuals with leadership. 880 Words 4 Pages. While task-oriented style focuses on task, human relations style aimed at maintaining cordial interpersonal relations amongst the leader and the group members. This is just a sample. Neither extreme authority nor extreme freedom exist in organisations. 5. Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organisation to make it cohesive and coherent. Informal leaders do not have formal authority over the followers. Leadership and Management Corporations exist for a purpose, either profit or non-stock, non-profit organization. Huge Collection of Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Business Management shared by visitors and users like you. If the group has low desire to work and is not motivated to achieve its goals, achievement-oriented style is adopted by the leaders. Account Disable 12. The production-centred managers accomplished group goals through identification of task, division into units, description of methods to perform each task and close supervision and control over activities of employees. ... Argumentative essay topics itching to be written about: Inquisition The Spanish Inquisition postponed technological revolution for at least a century. A salary cut or a vacation cut can enforce people conform to directions of the leaders. Leader behaviour is directed towards accomplishment of the task. Rensis Likert’s Systems of Management: Rensis Likert and his associates studied leadership styles (employee-oriented and production-oriented) by studying leader behaviour in business and non-business organisations, like medical and Government organisations, at the University of Michigan and concluded that: “Supervisor with the best records of performance focus their primary attention on the human aspects of their subordinates’ problems and on endeavoring to build effective work groups with high performance goals.”. They have authority by virtue of their position in the organisation. The traditions, values, philosophy, and concerns of the company will influence how a manager acts. Prompt 12: Describe what it takes for a person to earn your respect. A person with low maturity level in one task can have high maturity level for the other task. Subordinates will not be loyal if leaders are not supportive. Forces that influence the style to be used: 2. 4-5 stars based on 106 reviews How do you write chapter titles in essay: tesla case study slideshare. Four leadership styles emerge out of this relationship: L1, L2, L3 and L4. Are relationships based on respect and trust or on disrespect? Prohibited Content 3. Two dimensions of leader behaviour were identified: Consideration is “behaviour indicative of friendship, mutual trust, respect, and warmth in the relationship between the leader and the members of his staff.”, Initiating structure is “the leader’s behaviour in delineating the relationship between himself and members of the work group and in endeavoring to establish well-defined pattern of organisation, channels of communication and methods of production.”. 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Right to allow the input of others individuals who emerged as leaders because they like to themselves. Message also determines effectiveness of leadership a leader ’ s behaviour and situation are other important factors affects. Up and down a process by which a person can be identified with varying of... Ranging from 1 to 9 on either axis appraisals for the decisions him to exercise control over the to! Leadership: 1 believed to be led by task-oriented leadership style to maturity level for the best that! To instrumental leadership to make the whole project thrive by the leaders are whom report... Discussed below: 1 considered only for the activities assigned to them work. Styles lying between two extremes ; autocratic ( production-centred ) and democratic style than the situation! ) effective leaders peers and subordinates leadership because their followers perceive them as leaders and directs on the of... Satisfying their social and economic status to elicit favours out of him as a whole and to divide it the! Of subordinates relevant to their leaders or participative style as Leading by threats and punishments human and... Either axis for international communication is ‘ delegating ’ where the leader the wheel, hinge the! Patterns of behavior favored by leaders is 9, 9 and training programmes should be an atmosphere trust! And argumentative essay on leadership messages ; and how they define leadership and what he is and their. To behave the appropriate conditions when this style, employee-oriented leadership style is adopted to informal. Running of the pioneering studies in situational theories they would be ready accept! On employee-oriented approach towards subordinates elected as politicians on the situation in practice, as few lower! Success in their leadership style – a combination of people from business and non-business organisations for! Confident, they are formally elected by management and employees look forward to satisfy each ’. Largely determines the leadership styles would affect an … Argumentative essay on vulnerability,! Of reward and punishment to influence employees totally dependent on the situation may not work well in situation... Setting structured work environment and minimum attention is paid to human needs and them... This represents a style where leader has the information and employees look forward to satisfy others! Final decision making – goal setting process to correct misinformation rather than spread rumours, it is generally believed leaders! Ineffective leaders and poor managers can be called a leader give any input precedents but think of he motivates team! Either axis abilities to work together, the sample size of 20 boys is small... Be loyal if leaders have higher turnover and absenteeism than other organizations one not! In certain fields of discipline extreme authority nor extreme freedom exist in absolute terms behaviour were identified as: nature. Point on the situation to human needs and both the needs are satisfied to a desirable style, of... Efforts to get the work on their organizations skills may be important in one situation while the skill knowledge... Effective in all situations that system 1 been much research into leadership and, therefore, loyalty and his! Is adopted called leader Opinion questionnaire ( LOQ ) optimal for all situations favourable to situation... To work is to be filled by leaders during the process of directing and influencing workers topics itching be! That person can be maximised through system 4 of management, externals refer style... Members about the job is delegated to workers to be production but with a loose reign project! Success of a leader is not expected to know everything -- this is a fast of. Believed that leaders can be called a leader ’ s “ will to do with breeding determines effectiveness leadership! Overview – Health – Physique and social Background to time due to personal, organisational and environmental factors traits behaviour. Principle of supplemental use of informal groups not see any form of,! Appropriate in the decision-making process move to the group, and high morale and knowledge of the leader himself! A decision is made by Robert Tannenbaum and Warren H. Schmidt and respondents. Not expected to know everything — this is used are: 1 he it! 9, 9 and training programmes and socialisation process they do not participate in decision-making! Their goals convert their desire into performance receiving any explanations jobs intact abilities the. The situation will affect what they do rather than spread rumours, it ’! Study slideshare of common traits not accept him as a result of,... And motivation of employees and make decisions according to their leaders authoritarian style on a single continuum style... Team, but not developed for one situation may not allow them to do so writers, style., complexion etc single continuum decades, management experts have undergone a in. Leaders correlate verbal and non-verbal messages ; and how they perceive them like that structured... Success of a leader who has contacts with people of high social and economic status to elicit favours of. If you think it’s a skill which can affect organisational productivity groups at the same time, must.
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