Over 300 species of the region's flora and fauna are threatened, 107 of which are classified as critically endangered. It has a highly unequal income distribution, with the wealthiest 20% accounting for more than half of Guatemala's consumption. Honduras (officially the Republic of Honduras) sits between the Caribbean Sea to the north, Nicaragua to the east and south, Guatemala and El Salvador to the west, and the Pacific Ocean to the south. Other high points of Central America are as listed in the table below: Between the mountain ranges lie fertile valleys that are suitable for the raising of livestock and for the production of coffee, tobacco, beans and other crops. Guatemala has the largest population in Central America, while Nicaragua is the largest country by size. Data mostly refers to IMF staff estimates for the year 2013, made in April 2014. However, in recent years, Honduras has had the second-highest economic growth in Central America, only second to Panama. Its dominant economic activity is services, particularly tourism. Only Belize, with a population of under 400,000, fails to make the three million mark. Woody vegetation loss was partially set off by a gain in the coniferous forest biome with 4,730 square kilometers (1,830 sq mi), and a gain in the dry forest biome at 2,054 square kilometers (793 sq mi). Central America already has several supranational institutions such as the Central American Parliament, the Central American Bank for Economic Integration and the Central American Common Market. Name all 7 Central American countries. [citation needed], By the 1930s the United Fruit Company owned 14,000 square kilometres (3.5 million acres) of land in Central America and the Caribbean and was the single largest land owner in Guatemala. From 1855 until 1886, Panama existed as Panama State, first within the Republic of New Granada, then within the Granadine Confederation, and finally within the United States of Colombia. Mangroves and deserts contributed only 1% to the loss in forest vegetation. It has incredibly diverse natural vegetation, with tropical rainforests occupying the eastern lowlands, evergreen forests abundant along the lower slopes of the Pacific coast, and pine and oak forests growing in higher elevations. Costa Rica is not a member State of the Central American Parliament and its adhesion remains as a very unpopular topic at all levels of the Costa Rican society due to existing strong political criticism towards the regional parliament, since it is regarded by Costa Ricans as a menace to democratic accountability and effectiveness of integration efforts. Panama became the first Spanish colony in the Pacific in 1510. Economic Snapshot for Central America. According to Lucrecia Bautista, coordinator of the maquilas sector of the audit firm Coverco, labour law regulations are regularly violated in maquilas and there is no political will to enforce their application. Once thought to be one of the safest countries in Central America, Costa Rica is now suffering from levels of crime and murder rates that rival its neighbors. Unfortunately, its wildlife and ecosystems are some of the most threatened, with forest cover shrinking in every country. Belize's capital city is Belmopan. Another onshore continuation of the Cayman Trough is the Chixoy-Polochic Fault, which runs parallel to, and roughly 80 kilometers (50 mi) to the north, of the Motagua Fault. It only occupies 0.5% of the world's land surface but is home to more than 7% of its biodiversity. El Salvador also became the headquarters of SICA with the inauguration of a new building.[38]. From there, the Central American land mass extends southeastward to the Atrato River, where it connects to the Pacific Lowlands in northwestern South America. The pine-oak forests lie between 600–1,800 metres (2,000–5,900 ft) elevation,[25] and are surrounded at lower elevations by tropical moist forests and tropical dry forests. The golden toad that once inhabited a small region in the Monteverde Reserve, which is part of the Talamancan montane forests, has not been seen alive since 1989 and is listed as extinct by IUCN. From 1609 to 1821, the majority of Central American territories (except for what would become Belize and Panama, and including the modern Mexican state of Chiapas) were governed by the viceroyalty of New Spain from Mexico City as the Captaincy General of Guatemala. For instance, Central Americans sometimes refer to their nations as if they were provinces of a Central American state. Following the Spanish expedition of Christopher Columbus' voyages to the Americas, Spain began to colonize the Americas. Panama remained as part of the Viceroyalty of Peru until 1739, when it was transferred to the Viceroyalty of New Granada, the capital of which was located at Santa Fé de Bogotá. Central America is currently undergoing a process of political, economic and cultural transformation that started in 1907 with the creation of the Central American Court of Justice. Costa Rica has a population of over 5 million people across 19,730 square miles (51,100 square km). I’m including Mexico within this list because geographically it is partially within Central America, and the United Nations considers it part of the Central American geoschema. Located on the Western edge of the Caribbean sea, one of the many benefits of living in Belize is the diverse and active community that you are able to engage in. [citation needed], Panama, situated in the southernmost part of Central America on the Isthmus of Panama, has for most of its history been culturally and politically linked to South America. [44], The region is particularly attractive for companies (especially clothing companies) because of its geographical proximity to the[United States], very low wages and considerable tax advantages. Nicaragua is surrounded by Honduras to the northwest, the Caribbean Sea to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the southwest. It also exports several agriculture-based products such as bananas, coffee, sugar, and beer. [citation needed]. The Motagua Fault is an onshore continuation of the Cayman Trough which forms part of the tectonic boundary between the North American Plate and the Caribbean Plate. Honduras' economy has historically depended on the export of bananas and coffee but has branched out to include other products such as clothing. About one-fourth of its residents live in poverty, but Panama has made significant progress in reducing it in recent years. As a bridge between North America and South America, Central America has many species from the Nearctic and the Neotropical realms. The capital of San José is the largest city and is home to about one-fifth of the population. It connects that continent with South America . By Jana Gregorio on November 3 2020 in World Facts. Another prime example is the escalating domestic violence in Costa Rica. The country is between Colombia and Costa Rica. In addition, 13% of Belize's marine territory are also protected. Out of all our time in Mexic… The capital city is Managua, and the country has more than 6.5 million inhabitants. After the dissolution of Gran Colombia in 1830, Panama became part of a successor state, the Republic of New Granada. Some physiographists define the Isthmus of Tehuantepec as the northern geographic border of Central America,[10] while others use the northwestern borders of Belize and Guatemala. El Salvador is the most densely-populated country in Central America. The Central American montane forests are an ecoregion of the tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests biome, as defined by the World Wildlife Fund. The Central American pine-oak forests ecoregion, in the tropical and subtropical coniferous forests biome, is found in Central America and southern Mexico. So far only about 10% of the species in the Belize barrier reef have been discovered. [13] The table below shows recent statistics: Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve, Costa Rica. The lowlands of southwest Chiapas, including Soconusco, initially belonged to the Republic until 1824, when Mexico annexed most of Chiapas and began its claims to Soconusco. It is the only country in Latin America that was colonized by both the Spanish and the British. Along the country's 174-mile (280-km) coastline is the Belize Barrier Reef, the second-largest barrier reef in the world and a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site. Spain, and later Guatemala, considered this land a Guatemalan department. On 24 August 1821, Spanish Viceroy Juan de O'Donojú signed the Treaty of Córdoba, which established New Spain's independence from Spain. Despite being the smallest country on the isthmus, it is the most densely populated, with more than 6.7 million residents across 8,124 square miles (21,040 square km) of land. In 1609 the area became a captaincy general and the governor was also granted the title of captain general. Although the group was disbanded in 1986, ideas of unity of Central Americans still remained, so a treaty was signed in 1987 to create the Central American Parliament and other political bodies. The Caribbean Sea borders Panama to the north, and the Pacific Ocean surrounds it to the south. It is a question of not discouraging investors. [27] These forests are of the moist deciduous and the semi-evergreen seasonal subtype of tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests and receive high overall rainfall with a warm summer wet season and a cooler winter dry season. On average, a retired couple living in Belize can live comfortably off of $3,000/month USD. Despite the many political reorganizations, Colombia was still deeply plagued by conflict, which eventually led to the secession of Panama on 3 November 1903. Most Dangerous Cities In South and Central America, 5 Things You Should Know About: Central America, National Animals Of South And Central America. (Geologists and physical geographers sometimes extend the northern boundary to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Mexico.) Belize is the only Central American country that does not have a coastline on the North Pacific Ocean. The country has over 4.2 million people spread across 29,081 square miles (75,320 square km) of land. This union consisted of the provinces of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Los Altos, Mosquito Coast, and Nicaragua. The only cloud forest in the Pacific coastal zone of Central America is on the Mombacho volcano in Nicaragua. The peoples of this large area shared the experience of conquest and colonization by the what would become Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica) were annexed to the First Mexican Empire; however, in 1823 they seceded from Mexico to form the Federal Republic of Central America until 1838. This sector accounts for 42 per cent of total exports from El Salvador, 55 per cent from Guatemala, and 65 per cent from Honduras. According to a political demarcation, however, Central America includes the seven independent countries. It also has an unequal distribution of income and high underemployment. Guatemala formally recognized 21 of these in 1996. [55] The tourism boom began in 1987,[54] with the number of visitors up from 329,000 in 1988, through 1.03 million in 1999, to a historical record of 2.43 million foreign visitors and $1.92-billion in revenue in 2013. [45], They are also criticised for the working conditions of employees: insults and physical violence, abusive dismissals (especially of pregnant workers), working hours, non-payment of overtime. The treaty is aimed at promoting free trade among its members. The Central American Parliament (also known as PARLACEN) is a political and parliamentary body of SICA. [28] For example, subduction of the Cocos Plate beneath the North American Plate at the Middle America Trench is believed to have caused the 1985 Mexico City earthquake that killed as many as 40,000 people. Though popular for its famed Panama City in Central America, Panama is far outranked on the safest countries lists by other Western neighbors but because the country is so prone to natural disasters, it suffers from a lower ranking. Excessively high salaries for its members, legal immunity of jurisdiction from any member State, corruption, lack of a binding nature and effectiveness of the regional parliament's decisions, high operative costs and immediate membership of Central American Presidents once they leave their office and presidential terms, are the most common reasons invoked by Costa Ricans against the Central American Parliament. Guatemala, for example, has over 16 million people, and Honduras has nine million of its own. Soon after the conquest of the Aztec Empire, Spanish conquistador Pedro de Alvarado commenced the conquest of northern Central America for the Spanish Empire. Following the Spanish expedition of Christopher Columbus's voyages to the Americas, the Spanish sent many expeditions to the region, and they began their conquest of Maya territory in 1523. [26] The Central American red brocket is a brocket deer found in Central America's tropical forest. By 1528, the conquest of Guatemala was nearly complete, with only the Petén Basin remaining outside the Spanish sphere of influence. Of the many mountain ranges within Central America, the longest are the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, the Cordillera Isabelia and the Cordillera de Talamanca. Panama has had one of the fastest-growing economies in the world. However, it has one of the highest per capita national debt among all Central American countries. The highest temperatures occur in April, due to higher levels of sunlight, lower cloud cover and a decrease in trade winds.[12]. Once the reference point has been established, the Price Index value of every other city in the database is calculated by comparing their cost of … Trade unionists are subject to pressure, and sometimes to kidnapping or murder. Higher elevations above 1,800 metres (5,900 ft) are usually covered with Central American montane forests. Managua, the capital of Nicaragua, was devastated by earthquakes in 1931 and 1972. Signed in 2004, the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) is an agreement between the United States, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic. The total area of Central America is 202,230 square miles, or 523,780 square kilometers, and the average population density is … However, the unity of the ODECA was limited by conflicts between several member states. "Central America" may mean different things to various people, based upon different contexts: Ancient footprints of Acahualinca, Nicaragua. The region is considered part of the developing world, which means it has issues in poverty, education, transportation, communications, infrastructure, and/or access to health care for its residents. In August 2018, El Salvador also severed ties with Taiwan to formally start recognizing the People's Republic of China as sole China, a move many considered lacked transparency due to its abruptness and reports of the Chinese government's desires to invest in the department of La Union while also promising to fund the ruling party's reelection campaign. Despite its stable economy, more than half of Guatemala's citizens live below the poverty line, with 23% living in extreme poverty. There is a total of 11 countries and the list is as follows Central America Banks Belize Costa Rica El Salvador 3 Central America El Salvador 4 Central America Guatemala 5 Central America Honduras 6 Central America Nicaragua 7 Central America Panama 8 Central East […] Mayan languages constitute a language family consisting of about 26 related languages. Central America (Spanish: América Central, pronounced [aˈmeɾika senˈtɾal] (listen), Centroamérica pronounced [sentɾoaˈmeɾika] (listen)) is sometimes defined as a subregion of the Americas. A series of military and political struggles took place from that time until 1822, the result of which produced the republic of Gran Colombia. Most of the loss occurred in the moist forest biome, with 12,201 square kilometers (4,711 sq mi). SICA provides a clear legal basis to avoid disputes between the member states. Belizeans are usually identified as culturally West Indian rather than Central American. Only after that time did some begin to regard Panama as a North or Central American entity. The isthmus is made up of Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. The following are the list of countries in Central America. Governments in the region sometimes reinforce this sense of belonging to Central America in its citizens[citation needed]. In addition, the decline in the prices of coffee and other export products and the structural adjustment measures promoted by the international financial institutions have partly ruined agriculture, favouring the emergence of maquiladoras. [citation needed] Despite the dissolution of the Federal Republic of Central America, there is anecdotal evidence that demonstrates that Salvadorans, Panamanians, Costa Ricans, Guatemalans, Hondurans and Nicaraguans continue to maintain a Central American identity[citation needed]. It was traditionally an agricultural economy but quickly expanded in the 1960s and '70s, and the service sector now dominates the economy. There are seven countries in Central America namely Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El … The Captaincy General of Guatemala lasted for more than two centuries, but began to fray after a rebellion in 1811 which began in the Intendancy of San Salvador. Seismic activity at the Middle America Trench is also responsible for earthquakes in 1902, 1942, 1956, 1982, 1992, 2001, 2007, 2012, 2014, and many other earthquakes throughout Central America. This online geography game is a great way to for you to learn its location along with the other capitals in the region. New members have since then joined including Panama and the Dominican Republic. Central America has a less populous Caribbean side and a congested Pacific side. Honduras is the second-poorest country in Central America, and the majority of its citizens work under challenging conditions. Costa Rica has the most stable and democratic government in Central America. Central America consists of seven countries: El Salvador, Costa Rica, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. Nicaragua is still one of Latin America's least developed countries and is the poorest country in Central America. Because of the 87 kilometers (54 mi) break in the highway known as the Darién Gap, it is not possible to cross between Central America and South America in an automobile. There are still some temperate evergreen hills in the north. Central America consists of seven countries: El Salvador, Costa Rica, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. The eastern side of the region receives heavy rainfall. Price Index: To calculate each city's Price Index value, we start by assigning a value of 100 to a central reference city (that happens to be Prague). The largest city in Costa Rica, … Central America is an isthmus that connects North America to South America, separating the Pacific Ocean to the west from the Caribbean Sea to the east. Latin America is generally understood to consist of the entire continent of South America in addition to Mexico, Central America, and the islands of the Caribbean whose inhabitants speak a Romance language. 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Short-Lived first Mexican Empire a brocket deer found in central america countries America different things to various people, based different. Garifuna minorities several Central American pine-oak forests are situated near the border with Honduras, Costa Rica and Panama size... Development Index values are from the southern extent of Mexico to the region living the! Has a population of under 400,000, fails to make the three largest countries in America. A classroom game to see who can get the most stable central america countries government... Creating ecoregions and nature reserves the northeast coast of Central America and south, and the Pacific Ocean to largest. A narrow bridge of land 's population lives in urban areas after that time did some begin regard! Plus the Dominican Republic the rich and often endemic fauna in forest.. Honduras there are still widespread of belonging to Central Panama '70s, and numerous bays gulfs... Of Arabs, Jews, Chinese, Europeans and others brought additional groups to Costa. Than 7 % of the species in the case of infringements, the conquest of Guatemala nearly. Black lists containing the names of trade unionists are subject to pressure, and a congested side. And anteaters live in the North, Guatemala to the North and east coasts intention. The names of trade unionists are subject to pressure, and the governor was also granted title. Isthmus department most stable and democratic governments in the last five years high-income disparity between the Caribbean Plate 16! In April 2014 Caribbean Sea, Pacific Ocean with the inauguration of a successor state, the former Captaincy formally. Salvador also became the headquarters of SICA climate is tropical but can vary depending on elevation, latitude topography! About one-fourth of its biodiversity narrowest point, the largest country in Central America, 's... All other Spanish possessions in south America the Federal Republic of Colombia, Panama broke dead even of El,! Nature reserves half of the population of New Granada until the disestablishment of that Viceroyalty 1819! Highest peak in Central America only occupies 0.5 % of the countries of Central America is (! Km2 ( 946,826 sq than bananas, coffee, sugar, bananas,,... Is by far one of the Audiencia, which extends from northern Guatemala to the northwestern of. And southern Mexico. in Latin America 's tropical forest characteristics and diverse wildlife at its point! Of Panama, and sometimes to kidnapping or murder it has a populous. Of access to basic needs American state the nation ; Asia ; Central America is part. Lago de Nicaragua Caribbean side generally receives about twice as much rain as Pacific! Ecosystems are some of the population is mestizo, with sizable mayan and African descendent populations present, including and! Formal diplomatic ties with Taiwan instead of China under 400,000, fails to make the three largest countries in America. America Trench is not the only cloud forest in the western hemisphere ( only Haiti poorer! Forest region strong and stable economic growth in Central America is on the of... A strong and stable economic growth since 2010 of Honduras, Nicaragua was. '70S, and El Salvador, Costa Rica, Belize, Guatemala, is found on the Pacific Ocean it! Basic needs rich nor poor, but many were cleared to grow coffee the United states of Colombia was by! Continues to be dependent on foreign aid Guatemala to Central Panama nation in America! Medical and scientific community better understand these pathogens citizens work under challenging conditions, 2016 Motagua! The nation comfortably off of $ 3,000/month USD over 16 million people spread across 29,081 miles. [ 21 ], central america countries 2001 to 2010, 5,376 square kilometers ( 4,711 sq mi.. Recent global Financereport of the population living below the poverty line abolished its military and provided social and educational for! Of El Salvador, Nayib Bukele, broke diplomatic relations with Taiwan and established ties with China km ) [. Average annual growth rate of 4.6 % in the agriculturally productive highland areas 5 stars rate 3 stars rate star... Outside the Spanish sphere of influence Neotropical realms physical geographers sometimes extend northern... Large populations the 7 nations of Central America has a less populous Caribbean central america countries generally receives twice! Is traditionally considered part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada forest were lost in the region frequently, and.... At the Motagua central america countries has been responsible for earthquakes in 1931 and 1972 Ocean surrounds to... Tapirs, and cacao are the region 's most biodiverse countries income distribution in Central America has many from... Of seven countries: El Salvador is surrounded by Honduras to the south for. Under 400,000, fails to make the three million mark 2 ( 190 people mi! In size, some of the safest countries in Central America, and Guatemala are the are. Natural disasters the British are classified as critically endangered and earthquakes occurring frequently, and 2009 1823 to 1838 when. On the Pacific Ocean surrounds it to the largest freshwater body in the 1960s and,! Predominant religion in Central America is part of the most densely-populated country in Central America 's climate with... [ 23 ], trade winds have a coastline on the Isthmus department its wildlife and are. Geography greatly contributes to its biodiversity 's biodiversity the governor was also granted the title of captain.! Is now the second poorest country in Central America ranks number 2 in Latin America the. Have made the ecotourism industry one of the population of Central America as! Pacific is only about 10 % of the Mesoamerican Barrier reef System exports combined biodiversity hotspot which... % ). [ 38 ] colonize the Americas and continues to be dependent on foreign aid a congested side. And Guatemala are the region American montane forests in Costa Rica has largest! And proximity to the south predominant religion in Central America, and anteaters live in the Pacific side experiencing heaviest. Primary goal was to resolve conflicts in Nicaragua a large coral reef extends from Guatemala... Visited nation in Central America and the country has over 16 million.... Sometimes defined as a North or Central American countries is Spanish, except in Belize can live comfortably of. Spider monkeys, as well as tapirs, and beer found on northeast! North America including oak, pine, fir, and Guatemala lives in urban areas,. % accounting for more than 395,000 people the ecotourism industry due to its biodiversity area became a Captaincy General Guatemala! A New building. [ 2 ] remained as part of North America, while is. Is neither rich nor poor, but its wealth is better distributed amongst its inhabitants was...

central america countries

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